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GPR126 has been identified to be associated with AIS (Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis) in different populations, but data on the northern Chinese population are unavailable. Additionally, it is important to know the exact clinical phenotypes associated with specific genetic polymorphisms. Fourteen SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) loci in GPR126 were genotyped in 480 northern Chinese Han AIS patients and 841 controls. These patients were classified into three types based on the PUMC classification system. Luciferase assays were used to investigate their regulation of GPR126 transcription activity. Combined and stratified genotype-phenotype association analyses were conducted. The alleles rs225694, rs7774095 and rs2294773 were significantly associated with AIS (P = 0.021, 0.048 and 0.023, respectively). rs225694 and rs7774095 potentially have regulatory functions for the GRP126 gene. Correlation analysis revealed that allele A of rs225694 was a risk allele only for PUMC type II AIS (P = 0.036) and allele G of rs2294773 was a risk allele only for PUMC type I AIS (P = 0.018). In summary, rs225694, rs7774095 and rs2294773 are significantly associated with disease in northern Chinese Han AIS patients. The SNPs rs225694 and rs2294773 are associated with different AIS PUMC classifications.